quarta-feira, 30 de novembro de 2011
O entardecer (Quando o sol se vai) pelo advogado, fotografo e amigo Antonio Carlos Januário, Minas Gerais - Brasil -
segunda-feira, 28 de novembro de 2011
Henryk Szeryng (Żelazowa Wola, 1918 - Kassel, 1988) foi um renomado violinista, pedagogo, filantropo e diplomata judeu, da Polônia, tendo-se tornado mais tarde cidadão mexicano.
Era filho de um rico industrial, e com três anos já começava a ter lições de piano de sua mãe. Com sete anos escolheu o violino como seu instrumento. Seu primeiro professor foi Maurice Frenkel. Deu seu primeiro concerto em 1933, que teve tão grande sucesso que imediatamente foi contratado para uma tournée mesmo sendo ainda um estudante. Ouvindo-o nesta ocasião, Bronislaw Huberman recomendou que se aperfeiçoasse com Carl Flesch. Mais tarde continuou seus estudos com Jacques Thibaud e Gabriel Bouillon no Conservatório de Paris, recebendo o Primeiro Prêmio em 1937, o que o inseriu definitivamente na escola francesa de violino. Também estudou composição com Nadia Boulanger, e através dela conheceu figuras importantes como Heitor Villa-Lobos, Alfred Cortot, Manuel Ponce, Igor Stravinsky e Maurice Ravel.
Na II Guerra Mundial foi alistado pelo governo polonês no exílio como oficial de ligação e intérprete, dando mais de 300 concertos para as tropas aliadas na Europa, África e América. Em 1942 encontrou-se com o premier polonês, refugiado no México, que buscava asilo para mais de 4 mil poloneses. Sensibilizado pela acolhida mexicana aos refugiados, voltou ao México em 1943, quando o governo local lhe ofereceu o posto de diretor do departamento de cordas da Universidade Nacional do México, a fim de que reorganizasse a escola mexicana de violino. Por seu trabalho cultural recebeu a cidadania mexicana em 1948, foi indicado em 1956 como Embaixador da Cultura, e em 1970 Conselheiro Musical Especial da delegação permanente do México junto à UNESCO, sendo o primeiro artista a viajar com passaporte diplomático. Dominava oito idiomas.
Foi um dos violinistas que mais deixaram gravações. Redescobriu a partitura do terceiro concerto de Paganini e foi o primeiro a registrá-lo em disco. Diversos compositores escreveram peças para ele, incluindo Manuel Ponce, Camargo Guarnieri, Xavier Montsalvatge e Julian Carrillo. Seu repertório ia de Bach até os contemporâneos. Recebeu vários prêmios por suas gravações, entre eles o Grand Prix du Disque (seis vezes), o Grammy Award, o Wiener Flötenuhr, o Prêmio Edison e o Golden Record. Entre os títulos recebidos se contam a Ordem Polonia Restituta da Polônia, o grau de Comendador da República Italiana, o de Oficial da Coroa da Bélgica e da Legião de Honra da França, o de Comandante da Ordem de Alfonso X o Sábio, da Espanha, e da Ordem de São Carlos, de Mônaco.
Seus instrumentos também eram célebres, e os doou quase todos, retendo apenas o Guarnerius Leduc e o Pierre Hel 1935, uma cópia do Guarnerius Le Roi Joseph. Possuiu o Stradivarius Hercules que pertencera a Eugene Ysaye, e depois o doou à cidade de Jerusalém para que fosse usado nos concertos da Filarmônica local; doou seu Stradivarius Villaume, uma cópia do Stradivarius Messias, ao príncipe Rainier III de Mônaco, e seu Guarnerius Sancta Theresia foi dado de presente à cidade do México, e outros instrumentos foram deixados para seus alunos.
Henryk Wieniawski was born on 10 July 1835 in Lublin. Wieniawski owes his early introduction to the world of music to his mother, Regina, a professional pianist and the daughter of a Warsaw physician. His mother was also the driving force behind his musical training and subsequent development into a violin child prodigy. At the age of five he began violin lessons and three years later was admitted to the Paris Conservatory, overcoming the obstacles of being underaged and of foreign nationality. After completing with gold medal the accelerated course of study at the Conservatory he remained in Paris perfecting his technique under the care of professor Joseph L.Massart. It was then that he met in his mother's Paris salon of the two most famous Polish emigrees: Adam Mickiewicz (poet) and Fryderyk Chopin. Wieniawski's first, somewhat childish,compositions were written during that time (he was thirteen years old).
He returned to the Paris Conservatory and was joined by his brother Josef, where both studied composition until 1850. Wieniawski then embarked upon the unrelenting schedule of concert tours and performances which he was to continue almost throughout his life. While traveling he met Belgian violinist and composer Henri Vieuxtemps; a fellow Pole, Stanislaw Moniuszko, to whom he dedicated Allegro de Sonate op.2; Karol Lipinski, another Polish violin virtuoso and competitor of Paganini; also Robert Schumann and Anton Rubinstein.
The latter was instrumental in securing for Wieniawski a three year contract as the soloist of the court and court theaters in St. Petesburg. Wieniawski's arrangement in St Petersburg was later extended three more times (each time on terms more favorable to the artist) so that he resided there with his family from 1860 until 1872. While fulfilling the terms of his contract he also became involved as a teacher in the Russian Music Society run by his friend Anton Rubinstein and directed a newly founded string quartet. Through these various means he exerted a lasting influence on the development of the Russian violin school. The terms of the contract allowed Wieniawski extensive travel time during the spring and summer when he continued touring Europe on a busy schedule of concerts and social appearances.
In 1872, after his last contract in St. Petersburg had run its course, he resumed the life of the traveling virtuoso with a two-year tour of North America. Upon his return in 1875 he accepted a position of the professor of violin at the Brussels Conservatory but still maintained an extensive calendar of traveling and perfoming engagements. Since his North American tour, which exhausted him, his health continued to deteriorate. He died of an aggravated heart condition on 31 March 1880, in Moscow, in the midst of yet another concert tour. He was forty five at the time of his death.
During his life time he was unquestionably considered "a violinist of genius," an artist of great individuality, intensity of expression, and original technique. The influence of his technique is still evident in the style of some violinists of the Russian School.
The comparatively modest body of compositional work which he left behind attests to the demands of the life of the traveling virtuoso. Compositional forms favored by Wieniawski are consistent with the trends of his times. He composed variations, fantasies, capriccios, larger forms, such as concertos, and smaller lyrical forms (also called pieces de salon) - elegies, reveries, miniatures . In most of his early compositions, including the violin Concerto in F-sharp minor (1853), he put emphasis on technical difficulty and virtuoso effects. They were performance pieces which he composed with himself as a performer in mind. His work from these early years is said to exhibit the various influences of Paganini, Ernst and Vieuxtemps.
Wieniawski's grueling travel and concert schedule obviously interfered with his work as a composer. The relatively stable period of his residence in St. Petersburg (1860-1872) yielded the finest of his compositional works: Etudes-caprices op.18, Polonaise Brillante op.21, and the Second Violin Concerto in D-minor. The latter, a small masterpiece, has become a standard in the violin repertoire. While demonstrating the virtuoso possibilities of the violin technique,the composition is also characterized by Romantic lyricism and passionate melodic expression.
Wieniawski's interest in creating a "national" style of Polish music is evident in the mazurkas and polonaises he continued to compose throughout his career. In those works the influence of Chopin and Wieniawski's own genius produced a singular combination of noble simplicity of melodic line and mature, artistic sophistication. This great virtuoso-composer remains well respected today; in Poland his name is honored by International.